An act necessary for comfort and cleanliness for any who have traveled dusty Palestinian roads wearing sandals. Customarily, a host provided gusts with water for washing their own feet (Judg 19:21; Luke 7:44, where the complaint was that Simon had not provided water). Foot-washing was regarded as so lowly a task that it could not be required of a Hebrew slave. In this context the statement of John the Baptist that he was unworthy to untie the sandal (to wash the feet) of the One coming after him (Mark 1:7) indicates great humility. As a sign of
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The Hebrew word adon is used more than 300 times in the OT to refer to human masters or as a term of respect for someone of equal rank and status. Adon is used of the owner of slaves (Gen 24:14,27;39:2,7, rendered “master”), and of a husband as lord of the wife (Gen 18:12).
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Kurios is the word normally employed in the NT to speak of Jesus as Lord. The word, however, has a wide range of reference, being used of God (Acts 2:34), Jesus (Luke 10:1), humans (Acts 16:19), and angels (Acts 10:4). When characters in the Gospels speak of Jesus as Lord, they often mean no more than “sir.” At other times the designation Kurios expresses a full confession of
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Within the larger ancient Near Eastern world, prostitution was legal and generally accepted by members of society, and there is evidence that some prostitutes in Mesopotamia gathered into professional associations linked to the goddess Ishtar. The Hebrew of the Old Testament uses two different words when referring to those who functioned as prostitutes (zona, translated “prostitute” in Gen 38:15; and qedesa, translated “shrine prostitute” in Gen 38:21-22), which suggests that the prostitutes in Canaan were of two types: secular sex workers and prostitutes linked to pagan worship. Nevertheless, given the extent of the evidence we possess from the ancient world, we need to use caution in identifying the latter too closely with pagan worship rites that sought to increase the fertility of flocks, herds, and fields.
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Roads of Bible times were little more than paths, rough and crude by modern standards. When a king traveled, his servants would go ahead of him, removing stones, filling in low places, and straightening curves so the king’s journey would be more pleasant.
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Mountains are fitting, places to worship God, but as metaphors they become particularly effective theology instructors when moved or disturbed at God’s direction. As the Lord’s unlimited presence took up residence on Mount Sinai, the mountain trembled, smoked, and blazed as a way of showing how unique and powerful God’s presence was (Exod 19:16-19). This event was recalled centuries later when the poet spoke of the Lord as the one “who touches the mountains, and they smoke” (Psa 104:32; 144:5). The mountains of the Promised Land are
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NEW TESTAMENT – Paul and Peter insisted that Christian salves be obedient to their masters (Eph 6:5-8; Col. 3:22-25; 1 Tim 6:1-2; 1 Pet 2:18-21) and not seek freedom just because of conversion (1 Cor 7:20-22). Masters were urged to be kind (Eph 6:9; Col 4:1). Slave trading was condemned (1 Tim 1:10). Paul claimed that in Christ human status was unimportant (Gal 3:28). But neither Jesus nor the apostles condemned slavery. Slavery was so much a part of their society that to call for abolition would have resulted in violence and bloodshed. Rather, Jesus and the apostles set forth principles of human dignity and equality that eventually led to abolition.
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The raven, conspicuous because of its black color (Son 5:11), is a member of the crow family The raven acts as a scavenger and is listed among the unclean birds (Lev 11:15; Deut 14:14). Biblical writers cite the raven as an example of God’s care for His creation (Job 38:41; Psa 147:9; Luk 12:24).
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KJV alternate rendering of the Greek adjective monogenes (John 1:14,18; 3:16,18; Heb 11:17; 1 John 4:9). Elsewhere the KJV rendered the term “only [child]” (a son in Luke 7:12; 9:38; a daughter in 8:42). KJV, NKJV, NASB render monogenes as “only begotten [son]” when refering to Jesus (cp. NASB margin, “unique, only one of His kind”), but most modern translations (ESV,NAB,NJB,NLT,NRSV,REB,TEV) render the term consistently as “only.” NIV, HCSB render the term “One and Only [Son].”
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Hades is not another word for hell. It’s a word describing the place where all dead people go-not just the bad ones. Hades is the Greek word for a Hebrew term, Sheol. Jesus illustrated the Jewish understanding of Sheol in a parable about two men who died-a rich man and a beggar named Lazarus. Flames tormented the rich man, but he could see Lazarus in a comfortable place with Abraham. The rich man asked for a taste of water, but Abraham explained it was impossible: “There is a great chasm separating us” (Luke 16:26).
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