Term used to express the deity of Jesus of Nazareth as the one, unique Son of God. In the OT certain men and angels (Gen 6:1-4; Psa 29:1; 82:6; 89:6) are called “sons of God” (note text notes in modern translations). The people of Israel were corporately considered the son of God (Exod 4:22; Jer 31:20; Hos 11:1). The concept also is employed in the OT with reference to the king as God’s son (Psa 2:7). The promises found in the David covenant (2 Sam 7:14) are the source for this special filial relationship. The title can be found occasionally in intertestamental literature (Ezra 7:28-29; 13:32,37,52; 14:9).
Jesus’ own assertions and intimations indicate that references to Him as Son of God can be traced to Jesus Himself. At the center of Jesus’ identity in the Fourth Gospel is His divine sonship (John 10:36). Jesus conceived of His divine sonship as unique as indicated by such assertions as “the Father and I are one” (John 10:30 HCSB) and the “Father is in Me and I in the Father” (John 10:38). Elsewhere, He frequently referred to God as “My Father” (Matt 7:21; 10:32-33; 20:23; 26:29, 53; Matt 8:38; Luke 2:49; 10:21-22; John 5:17; 6:23; 8:54; 10:18; 15:15).
At Jesus’ baptism and transfiguration, God the Father identified Jesus as His Son, in passages reflecting Psa 2:7. He was identified as Son of God by an angel prior to His birth (Luke 1:32, 35), by Satan at His temptation (Matt 4:3,6), by John the Baptist (John 1:34), and by the centurion at the crucifixion (Matt 27:54). Several of His followers ascribed to Him this title in various context (Matt 14:33; 16:16; John 1:49; 11:27).
The term “Son of God” revels Jesus; divine sonship and is closely associated with His royal position as Messiah. Gabriel told Mary that her Son would not only be called the Son of God but would also reign on the messianic (David’s) throne (Luke 1:32-33). The connection of Son of God with Jesus’ royal office is also found in the Gospel of John (1:49; 11:27; 20:30), in Paul’s letter (Rom 1:3-4; 1 Cor 15:28; Col 1:13), and in Luke’s writings (Acts 9:20-22).
Primarily, the title “Son of God” affirms Jesus’ deity evidenced by His person and His work. John emphasized Jesus’ personal relationship to the Father. Paul stressed the salvation that Jesus provided (Rom 1:4; 1 Thess 1:10), and the author of Hebrews focused on Jesus’ priesthood (5:5). All of these are vitally related to His position as Son of God.