- Victim is stripped and tied to a pole.
- Shards of metal and bone are laced into the leather whip.
- Romans aren’t limited to 40 strokes, as are the Jews.
- Pain and blood loss set stage for shock.
Jews were promised health if they obeyed God’s laws (Exodus 15:26), and they were given a number of health laws (regular rest and relaxation, suit able food, avoidance of contaminated water, marriage regulations, cleanliness, separation from contagious disease), which when followed led to a high level of good health. If the laws were disobeyed, disease resulted (Deuteronomy 28:60-61). There was no call for doctors, and anyone who resorted to them came under criticism for going against the will of God. This