- Victim is stripped and tied to a pole.
- Shards of metal and bone are laced into the leather whip.
- Romans aren’t limited to 40 strokes, as are the Jews.
- Pain and blood loss set stage for shock.
DEAD MAN WALKING
- Victim carries crossbeam to execution site.
- Crossbeam is attached to vertical pole.
- Seat prolongs the torture, making it easier to breath.
- Iron nails pin hands and feet to cross.
- Nails miss main arteries and bones.
- Wine laced with painkilling myrrh or frankincense is offered. Jesus refuses.
BREATH OF LIFE
- Position and weight of body forces victim to push up to exhale.
- Breaking legs speeds death. It forces arms to do all the work, pulling victim up to exhale.
- Jesus dies before breaking the legs becomes necessary.
- Soldier confirms death by stabbing the heart.
- By this time, shock has started separating blood into two basic elements: cell clusters and amber-colored serum.
- “Water” pours out of Jesus’ chest-serum from inside and around the heart.
- Possible cause of death: a combination of shock, exhaustion, asphyxiation, and heart failure.