Egyptian royal name meaning “Thoth the moon god is born.” Four pharaohs of the Egyptian 18th Dynasty (ca, 1550-1310 B.C.). Their combined efforts, especially those of Thutmose I and III, did much to expand Egyptian wealth and influence.

Thutmose I rose to power through his skills as a general and by marrying the daughter of his predecessor, Amenhotep I. His military exploits expanded Egypt to include Nubia to the south and Syria, north to the Euphrates River. The tribute from his conquests allowed Eneni, his architect, to restore and add to the temples of Thebes. Eneni was also instructed to initiate the work at Biban el-Moluk (gates of the kings) known today as the Valley of the Kings. Thutmose I had no clear heir to the throne when he died.

Thutmose II succeeded in gaining the throne by marrying his ambitious half sister Hatshepsut. His reign lasted only a few years was succeeded by this gifted queen.

Thutmose III marched in the steps of his grand-father Thutmose I but only after about 20 years of “corule” with Hatshepsut. His hatred of her must have smoldered all those years, for he removed much of the evidence of her reign as soon as she was dead. Thutmose III conducted 14 military campaigns in 17 years, continuing his rule another 15 years. The Theban temple of Karnak contains displays of his exploits. He especially enjoyed hunting and was devoted to the god Amun. Some scholars believe him to be the pharaoh of the Israelite oppression. Amenhotep II became co-regent with his father for about three years at the conclusion of his reign.

Thutmose IV, like Thutmose II, seized his position by marriage. He seemed content to maintain the status quo and clear the sand from the Sphinx where he had dreamed of becoming Pharaoh according to a stela, an ancient stone bearing some inscription. That he was no the firstborn son of the previous pharaoh is considered by some to be evidence that Amenhotep II was the pharaoh of the exodus.

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