Transliteration of Hebrew, meaning “hosts, armies, heavenly bodies,” Part of a divine title, “Lord of Host,” variously interpreted as Lord of Israel’s armies (cp. 1 Sam 17:45); the stars; members of Yahweh’s heavenly court or council; a comprehensive title for all beings, heavenly and earthly; an intensive title describing God as all powerful. Interestingly, the title does not

appear in Genesis through Judges. The earliest Greek translation at times translated “Sabaoth” as a proper name, sometimes as “Almighty,” and sometimes not at all. The title was apparently closely tied to Shiloh and the ark of the covenant (1 Sam 1:3, 11; 4:4; 6:2).

When David brought the ark to Jerusalem, he also introduced the title “Yahweh of Hosts” to Jerusalem worship (2 Sam 6:2). Yahweh Sabaoth seems to have emphasized God’s place as divine king enthroned on the cherubim with the ark as His footstool ruling over the nation, the earth, and the heavens (Psa 24:10). He is the God without equal (Psa 89:8) who is present with His people (Ps 46:7, 11; cp 2 Sam 5:10).

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